Matter - Nature and Behaviour
Definition of matter; solid, liquid and gas; characteristics - shape, volume, density; change of state-melting (absorption of heat), freezing, evaporation (cooling by evaporation), condensation, sublimation.
Organization in the Living World
Biological Diversity: Diversity of plants and animals - basic issues in scientific naming, basis of classification. Hierarchy of categories / groups, Major groups of plants (salient features) (Bacteria, Thalophyta, Bryo phyta, Pteridophyta, gymnosperms and Angiosperms). Major groups of animals (salient features) (Non-chordates upto phyla and chordates upto classes).
Health and Diseases: Health and its failure. Infectious and Non-infectious diseases, their causes and manifestation. Diseases caused by microbes (Virus, Bacteria and protozoans) and their prevention, Principles of treatment and prevention. Pulse polio programmes.
Tissues, Organs, Organ System, Organism:
Structure and functions of animal and plant tissues (four types in animals; meristematic and permanent tissues in plants).
Motion, Force and Work
Motion: Distance and displacement, velocity; uniform and non-uniform motion along a straight line; acceleration, distance-time and velocity-time graphs for uniform motion and uniformly accelerated motion, equations of motion by graphical method; elementary idea of uniform circular motion.
Force and Newton's laws: Force and motion, Newton's laws of motion, inertia of a body, inertia and mass, momentum, force and acceleration. Elementary idea of conservation of momentum, action and reaction forces.
Gravitation: Gravitation; universal law of gravitation, force of gravitation of the earth (gravity), acceleration due to gravity; mass and weight; free fall.
Plant and animal breeding and selection for quality improvement and management; use of fertilizers, manures; protection from pests and diseases; organic farming.
Physical resources: Air, Water, Soil. Air for respiration, for combustion, for moderating temperatures; movements of air and its role in bringing rains across India. Air, water and soil pollution (brief introduction). Holes in ozone layer and the probable damages.
Bio-geo chemical cycles in nature: Water, oxygen, carbon and nitrogen.